In April 2015, the U.S. government requested access to eight bases in the Philippines, including American Subic Bay Marine Base and Clark Air Base, as well as bases in Cebu, Luzon and Palawan.  According to the base, the United States maintained and operated until November 1991 large facilities on Clark Air Base and in the Subic Bay Naval Complex, as well as several small subsidiaries in the Philippines until November 1992. In July 1991, negotiators from both countries agreed on a draft treaty to reseal and surrender Clark to the Philippine government in 1992 and lease the Subic Bay naval base for a decade.  Clark`s operations were reduced in 1991 due to the end of the Cold War, with the last warplanes departing in 1990, before the base was severely damaged by the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991.  As stated in Article 1 of the Treaty, each party must peacefully resolve international disputes so as not to jeopardize world peace and refrain from threatening violence in a manner inconsistent with the UNITED Nations objective.  Article II stipulates that each party can, individually or collectively, acquire, develop and maintain, through mutual assistance, its ability to withstand armed attacks. Article III stipulates that the parties will consult from time to time, using their secretaries of state, foreign ministers or consuls, to determine appropriate enforcement measures.  The parties will also consult if one of the parties finds that their territorial integrity, political independence or national security is threatened by armed attacks in the Pacific.  Article IV stipulates that an attack on one of the two parties is carried out in accordance with their constitutional processes and that any armed attack against either side is brought to the attention of the United Nations for immediate arrest.  Once the United Nations has issued such orders, all hostile actions between the signatories of this treaty and the opposing parties will be fine-sided.  On 1 June, the Philippine government informed the U.S.
Embassy in Manila that it was freezing a February decision to withdraw the Philippine and U.S. Visiting Forces Agreement (VFA). The agreement between the two countries facilitates the possibility for the United States to send military forces to the Philippines and supports the mutual defense treaty signed in 1951 by the U.S. and Philippine governments. The Defence Enhanced Cooperation Agreement is a 10-page document containing a preamble and 12 articles, signed on 28 April 2014. It is a framework agreement that increases the scope of the 1951 TDM. After the United States changed the military bases, the government turned them into economic zones run by the Bases Conversion Development Authority, the Subic Bay Metropolitan Authority and the Clark Development Corporation. The government also restored the U.S. military presence in the country through a new form known as balikatan exercises or the rp-US Visiting Forces Agreement (VFA), ratified by the Senate on May 27, 1999.